NamesforLife (N4L) Linking

NamesforLife (N4L) automatically identifies biological names in Word documents (currently, validly published names of Bacteria and Archaea at all ranks, from domain to subspecies, as well as names for which a published genome exists; other terminologies are in the works) and provides DOI-based links to the N4L service. You can learn more about the N4L service at

On this page

How to use

To use N4L Linking, select N4L Matching/Linking from the Advanced Processing menu. The module looks for biological names listed in the N4L database. If it finds a match, it applies a character style to the biological name specific to the rank, and it also creates a hyperlink to the record for that name in the database.

For example, when the module sees this text:

However, a few species — for example, Thiomargarita namibiensis — are up to half a millimetre long and are visible to the unaided eye.

it applies the character style cite_n4l_species and this link to the text “Thiomargarita namibiensis”:

Clicking on this link brings up the N4L record for this species. The linked text is displayed:

The N4L Linking module includes 12 different character styles to indicate the rank of the biological name that has been matched.